Conditions We Treat

Constipation – Defecatory Dysfunction

Infrequent Bowel Movements – Trouble Emptying the Rectum

Infrequent bowel movements (< 3 per week) is considered constipation and may lead to trouble emptying the rectum especially if the stool is particularly hard. Causes of constipation may include a slow colon and/or obstructed defecation. Defecatory dysfunction may be due to a rectocele, enterocele, sigmoidocele, uterine compression, pelvic floor muscle spasm, and/or pelvic outlet obstruction.


Vulvar Vestibulitis

May occur upon entry, within the vagina, or with deeper penetration. Causes include vaginal dryness, vestibulodynia (vulvar vestibulitis), pelvic floor muscle spasm, and/or pelvic pathology.


Communication Between Vagina and Another Organ

May occur following surgery or significant inflammation and may appear as leakage of urine into the vagina (vesicovaginal fistula) or leakage of stool into the vagina (rectovaginal fistula).

Nocturia – Nocturnal Enuresis

Frequent Urination at Night – Leakage of Urine while Sleeping

Can be the result of decreased bladder capacity at night or due to too much production of urine while sleeping following certain medications before bed or from leg swelling that occurs during the day.

Overactive Bladder

Urinary Frequency and Urgency with or without Leakage of Urine

Is a very common condition affecting approximately 10% of Americans. It is usually the result of subtle changes in the cells of the central nervous system and/or bladder wall which occur as we age, but less commonly may be neurogenic (from a disease affecting the nervous system) or pathologic (from inflammation or growths in the bladder)

Painful Bladder Syndrome

Newer Name for Interstitial Cystitis

Is characterized by urinary frequency, urgency and pain with a full bladder. It is usually a diagnosis of exclusion meaning that such symptoms occur in the absence of pathology or infection. The cause is unknown and is the result of chronic inflammation of the bladder wall.

Pelvic Pain

May be the result of conditions such as painful bladder syndrome, endometriosis, irritable bowel syndrome, diverticulitis, and/or pelvic floor muscle spasm. Pain is typically considered to be chronic if lasting for more than 6 months.

Pudendal Neuralgia

Occurs when there is compression or scar around the pudendal nerve and may cause pain anywhere in the perineum (near urethra, vaginal opening, labia, and/or anus)

Pelvic Organ Prolapse

Falling of Pelvic Organs

Occurs when the muscles and tissue supporting the pelvic organs become weak and allow for their descent through the opening of the vagina. Signs and symptoms in general may include pressure, discomfort, pain with relations, and the appearance of visible vaginal tissue at or beyond the vaginal opening. Risk factors in the development of falling organs include age, vaginal deliveries, chronic cough, constipation – defecatory dysfunction, a lifetime of heavy lifting, and/or genetic factors leading to tissue weakness.

Cystocele – Occurs when the tissue underneath the bladder becomes weak. It may appear as a tissue bulge from the front of the vagina and may lead to trouble emptying the bladder.

Rectocele – Occurs when the tissue in between the vagina and rectum becomes weak. It may appear as a tissue bulge from the back of the vagina and may make it difficult to empty the rectum.

Uterine or vaginal prolapse – Occurs when the tissue supporting the uterus or top of the vagina becomes weak. It may appear a bulge from the middle of the vagina.

Sexual Dysfunction

Trouble with Libido and/or Orgasm

Defined by difficulty during any stage of sexual activity including, but not limited to, desire, arousal and/or orgasm.

Stress Urinary Incontinence

Leakage of urine with physical effort or exertion

Seen in women of all ages and is the result of loss of support of the urethra (urine tube) and/or a weak urethra. Symptoms include leakage with coughing, sneezing, laughing, relations, exercise etc.

Urge Incontinence

Leakage of Urine Following a Strong Urge to Urinate

May be due to subtle changes in brain, spinal cord or bladder that occur as we age; or a more significant abnormality of the nervous system; or due to inflammation or changes to tissue in the bladder wall.

Voiding Dysfunction

Impaired Urinary Stream or Incomplete Emptying of the Bladder

Can occur with a bladder that does not contract as well as it should; or with an internal or external blockage of the urethra (urine tube).


Also known as Vulvar Vestibulitis

Represents an upregulation or nerve related sensitivity at the opening of the vagina making it painful with intercourse, sitting, the wearing of pants etc.